Valorisation potential of renewable energy in Romania mountainous areas
Quality of life in mountainous rural areas of Romania is severely affected by the lack of infrastructure on the one hand and also by the lack of electricity (partially or totally). Thus, in the Central Region of Romania, there are a total of 5081 non-electrified households, of which a percentage of 38.7% are fully unelectrified and 61.3% partially unelectrified. The most part, these households are in the mountains areas. There are currently settlements in mountainous areas that are not connected to utilities (electricity, heat or sewage, etc) which entails hard living conditions for local residents, who are deprived of elementary conditions of civilization.
For these disadvantaged mountain areas some measures can be taken, at least in terms of energy by adopting energy solutions, based on renewable energy, which would lead equal extent to improve the quality of life, to the increase of tourist attraction and the creation of jobs.
Carpathian Mountains offers a rich energy potential through energy valorisation, particularly wind, hydro, solar and biomass. Renewable electrification solution for many situations point can be competitive or even more advantageous than other conventional solutions: network connection or generator sets.
1 . Wind energy
In the mountains, annual average speeds are characteristic which decrease with altitude from 8-10 m / s on Carpathian highlands (2000-2500 m) to 6 m / s in areas with altitudes of 1800-2000 m. On sheltered slopes annual speeds fall to 2-3 m / s, and in the mountains depressions are of 1-2 m / s
Therefore, it is imperative preparation of pre-feasibility studies for the creation of a wind park based on the wind potential identified through measurements, to
2 . Hydropower
Constant flow rich in good part, as steep longitudinal profiles are characteristics that determine high hydropower potential of Carpathian rivers. In addition, the water supply required by cities, the economic units and irrigation, along with the need for regularization river level, give complex economic functions to the large accumulation of water in artificial pools mountain.
3 . Solar energy
Mountainous area of Romania, has a relatively high potential for exploitation of solar energy. Analyzing solar map of Europe, we see that Romania is more sunny than southern Germany, Austria and similar to the southern half of France. By installing solar panels, you can capture solar energy and transform it into thermal energy, so necessary in domestic consumption and domestic heating both in rural and in urban areas.
Inexhaustible energy of the sun can be harnessed in obtaining electricity by installing solar panels, both with storage batteries and the grid connection.
Conversion is static and clean, so how production is environmentally friendly electric enerigiei.
Conversion is static and clean, so electricity production is environmentally friendly.
4 . Biomass
Mountain areas in Romania, has a high potential of biomass energy, which could replace primary resources consumption in significant proportion. Heat produced from biomass is obtained from the burning of forest residues (heat required for heating homes and cooking, especially in rural areas, is the result of consumption of vegetal waste).
Wood waste obtained from wood processing can be exploited in order to obtain alternative energy sources, with a relatively high calorific value, shows that villages frustrated by gas supply can harness energy from biomass.
Biomass reserves are especially wood, agricultural residues, municipal waste and energy crops. Biomass production is not only a renewable energy resource but also a significant opportunity for sustainable rural development.
Analysis of valorisation potential for renewable energy in mountain areas in Romania, will have the following consequences:
- Improving quality of life: creating optimal living conditions in disadvantaged areas through the adoption of alternative energy solutions, increase of attractiveness for the area, increase the birth rate, reduce the exodus phenomena, depopulation, reduced unemployment by attracting further investors;
- Realising of independent autonomous applications of electrification for isolated villages, for tourist locations (eco-tourism), large telecommunication stations. These applications will be able, to support isolated villages consumption, hotels and pensions groups which are outside of national electricity distribution. They contribute, in this way, to the development of tourism network in the region
- Depreciation, in the relatively small, of investment for equipment producing green energy because the produced energy is free
- Renewable energy is ecological and it contribute to the sustainability to the natural balance of the environment